GDPR and Google Analytics

This article is a repost promoting content originally published elsewhere. See more things Dan's reposted.

GDPR and Google Analytics (

Do you have permission for those third-party scripts?

Enforcement of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation is coming very, very soon. Look busy. This regulation is not limited to companies based in the EU—it applies to any service anywhere in the world that can be used by citizens of the EU.

Jeremy Keith raises some interesting points: when informed consent is required to track an individual, who is responsible for getting your users to “consent” to being tracked with Google Analytics and similar site-spanning tools? You? Google? Nobody? I’ve spent the weekend talking through only a handful of the woolly edges of the GDPR, especially regarding the liabilities of different companies (potentially not all of which are based in the EU) who are complicit in the collection of data on the same individuals but who have access to that data in different forms.

It’s complicated, yo. For the time being, I’m making sure that companies for which I have responsibility err on the “safe” side of any fuzzy lines, but I’m sure that others won’t.

My Blog Now Has a Content Security Policy – Here’s How I’ve Done It

This article is a repost promoting content originally published elsewhere. See more things Dan's reposted.

My Blog Now Has a Content Security Policy – Here's How I've Done It (Troy Hunt)

I've long been a proponent of Content Security Policies (CSPs). I've used them to fix mixed content warnings on this blog after Disqus made a little mistake, you'll see one adorning Have I Been Pwned (HIBP) and I even wrote a dedicated Pluralsight course on browser security headers. I'm a

I’ve long been a proponent of Content Security Policies (CSPs). I’ve used them to fix mixed content warnings on this blog after Disqus made a little mistake, you’ll see one adorning Have I Been Pwned (HIBP) and I even wrote a dedicated Pluralsight course on browser security headers. I’m a fan (which is why I also recently joined Report URI), and if you’re running a website, you should be too.

But it’s not all roses with CSPs and that’s partly due to what browsers will and will not let you do and partly due to what the platforms running our websites will and will not let you do. For example, this blog runs on Ghost Pro which is a managed SaaS platform. I can upload whatever theme I like, but I can’t control many aspects of how the platform actually executes, including how it handles response headers which is how a CSP is normally served by a site. Now I’m enormously supportive of running on managed platforms, but this is one of the limitations of doing so. I also can’t add custom headers via Cloudflare at “the edge”; I’m serving the HSTS header from there because there’s first class support for that in the GUI, but not for CSP either specifically in the GUI or via custom response headers. This will be achievable in the future via Cloudflare workers but for now, they have to come from the origin site.

However, you can add a CSP via meta tag and indeed that’s what I originally did with the upgrade-insecure-requests implementation I mentioned earlier when I fixed the Disqus issue. However – and this is where we start getting into browser limitations – you can’t use the report-uri directive in a meta tag. Now that doesn’t matter if all the CSP is doing is upgrading requests, but it matters a lot if you’re actually blocking content. That’s where the real value proposition of a CSP lies too; in its ability to block things that may have been maliciously inserted into a site. I’ve had enough experience with breaking the CSP on HIBP to know that reporting is absolutely invaluable and indeed when I’ve not paid attention to reports in the past, it’s literally cost me money.

Bypassing WordPress / Jetpack’s “Prove your humanity:” CAPTCHA

One of the most-popular WordPress plugins is Jetpack, a product of Automattic (best-known for providing the widely-used WordPress hosting service ““). Among Jetpack’s features (many of which are very good) is Jetpack Protect which adds – among other things – the possibility for a CAPTCHA to appear on your login pages. This feature is slightly worse than pointless as it makes it harder for humans to log in but has no significant impact upon automated robots; at best, it provides a false sense of security and merely frustrates and slows down legitimate human editors.

WordPress/Jetpack's CAPTCHA, asking for the solution to "9+10="
Thanks, WordPress, for slowing me down with a CAPTCHA that a robot can solve more-easily than a human.

“Proving your humanity”, as you’re asked to do, is a task that’s significantly easier for a robot to perform than a human. Eventually, of course, all tests of this nature seem likely to fail as robots become smarter than humans (especially as the most-popular system is specifically geared towards training robots), but that’s hardly an excuse for inventing a system that was a failure from its inception. Jetpack’s approach is fundamentally flawed because it makes absolutely no effort to disguise the challenge in a way that humans are able to read any-differently than robots. I’ll demonstrate that in a moment.

Jetpack security settings: "Protect" switch
Don’t just disable this, though! Other “Protect” features make sense. If only you could disable just the one that doesn’t…

A while back, a colleague of mine network-enabled Jetpack Protect across a handful of websites that I occasionally need to log into, and it bugged me that it ‘broke’ my password safe’s ability to automatically log me in. So to streamline my workflow – as well as to demonstrate quite how broken Jetpack Protect’s CAPTCHA is, I’ve written a userscript that you can install into your web browser that will completely circumvent it, solving the maths problems on your behalf so that you don’t have to. Here’s how to use it:

  1. Install a userscript manager into your browser if you don’t have one already: I use Tampermonkey, but it ought to work with almost any of them.
  2. Install Jetpack Maths Solver.

From now on, whenever you go to a page whose web path begins with “/wp-login.php” that contains a Jetpack Protect maths problem, the answer will be automatically calculated and filled-in on your behalf. The usual userscript rules apply: if you don’t trust me, read the source code (there are really only five lines to check) and disable automatic updates for it (especially as it operates across all domains), and feel free to adapt/improve however you see fit. Maybe if we can get enough people using it Automattic will fix this half-hearted CAPTCHA – or at least give us a switch to disable it in the first place.

Update: 15 October 2018 – the latest version of Jetpack makes an insignificant change to this CAPTCHA; version 1.2 of this script (linked above) works around the change.